Legionella Infection Risk from Domestic Hot Water
Borella P, Montagna MT, Romano-Spica V, Stampi S, Stancanelli G, Triassi M, et al. Legionella infection risk from domestic hot water. Emerg Infect Dis [serial ******] 2004 Mar [date cited]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol10no3/02-0707.htm
"Increased prevalence of Legionella colonization was associated with water heater temperatures <50 degrees C,"
See also Emerging Infectious Disease www.cdc.gov/eid Volume 12, No. 4, April 2006 http://ceip.us/pdf/legionella.pdf
about the effects of converting to monochloramine for public drinking water disinfection. Since the majority of the country is still using Chlorine we have to take precautions.
"CDC" Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases. Home Page. Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. 12 Oct. 2005 http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/disea...nellosis_g.htm
Legionella. Legionella 2003. An updated and statement by the Association of Water Technologies. June 2003. http://www.awt.org/Legionella03.pdf
Ackroyd, R. (2001). 25 years and 125,000 scalds. Retrieved July 28, 2005, from Innovative Valves, Faucets and Plumbing Specialties Web site: http://www.pmengineer.com/CDA
Legionnaires’ disease which is a severe respiratory infection which includes pneumonia. The bacteria grows in sources of potable water, such as hot water heaters. This bacteria survives in water temperatures less than 140 degrees and can be contracted through inhalation. Symptoms to this non-contagious disease begin with coughing, fever, chills, headaches and muscle aches. Some victims develop pneumonia which may lead to death.
How do I prevent it? Many experts, such as your pediatrician or in-home contractor, suggest turning your hot water heater down to temperatures that prevent scalding (120 degrees F or less); however, create a perfect climate for the Legionella bacteria. Installing devices at your water heater, such as a thermostatic mixing valve, can help you find that happy-medium. Designed to prevent scalding, thermostatic mixing valves store your hot water at Legionella-safe temperature of 140 degrees F, yet ensures water to baths, showers and sinks are safe at the faucetsee more at http.bt.cdc.gov includingLegionnaires' disease is a form of pneumonia that is acquired from aerosolized water containing the bacteria Legionella. Legionnaires' disease can be very serious, causing death in up to 30% of cases, usually in older people or those with weakened immune systems. Growth of Legionella is enhanced in warm, stagnant water; plumbing systems that have been out of use for any reason, including a disaster, provide such an environment. Transmission to humans requires aerosolization by shower heads, cooling towers, whirlpool spas, or other similar systems.
http://www.dhmh.state.md.us/html/legionella.htmWhat can be done to remove Legionella bacteria from water systems?
There are several ways to eliminate Legionella bacteria from water systems, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Guidelines for reducing the risk of Legionella colonization of buildings are available for building maintenance superintendents, engineers, managers, and other personnel evaluating water systems from the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE®) . ASHRAE is a not-for-profit organization that develops standards and guidelines for industries that design, manufacture, and maintain building systems. With substantial input from CDC and industry experts, ASHRAE developed "ASHRAE Guideline 12-2000-Minimizing the Risk of Legionellosis Associated with Building Water Systems." The guidelines provide specific environmental and operational guidelines that will contribute to the safe operation of building water systems and are available at www.ashrae.org http://www.ashrae.org. http://www.asse-plumbing.org/