I can't help you out with which studs to use, or the type of wall or flooring, but when it comes to stopping and preven seepage and moisture, I would suggest going with a sodium silicate or lithium silicate based sealer, like the Armor S2000 or Armor L3000 sealer. They are approved vapor barriers and chemically react below the surface. Because the surface will be left untouched, you can polish, paint, or apply flooring over it once fully matured.

One thing you have to keep in mind, espeically because you live in New England, is just because you don't have water or moisture problems now, it doesn't mean you won't have them down the road. As concrete, fieldstone, cement, cinderblock, etc. become exposed to water, over time the size of the pores will increase. The larger the pores, the higher chance you have of water or moisture penetration. The soil surrounding your foundation will absorb water but where that water goes is dependent on the condition of your foundation and whether or not a drainage system has been installed to redirect the water away from the house.

If you can, waterproof now before water becomes a problem once your walls are up.