You can learn more than you need or want to know about latex paints by spending some time at the Paint Quality Institute's web site at:
Specifically, click on the Media Center link, then click on "PQI Publications", and then on "Continuing Education" to get to this web page:
If you download and read the two PDF files entitled:
The Ingredients of Paint and Their Impact on Paint Properties
How Colour is Affected by the Ingredients of Paint
and understand what you've read, then you'll know more about latex paint than 90% of the people working in paint stores. (And, I can probably answer some of your questions.)
PS: You don't need to know the rest...
The Paint Quality Institute was established by, and is funded by, the Rohm & Haas Company who are the largest manufacturers of polymethyl methacrylate plastic in North America. (In the world, it's the Akzo Nobel company, which partially gets it's name from Alfred Nobel, who discovered how to make nitroglycerine much safer to handle, and sold his nitroglycerine under the trade name "Dynomite".) Since polymethyl methacrylate is used in various forms to make Plexiglas, top quality latex paints, acrylic floor finishes, grout and masonary sealers, adhesives, films, foams and even nail polish for the ladies, the Rohm & Haas Company is not a well known name, but supplies the feed stock to many well recognized companies like Benjamin Moore, Diversey Lever, Tile Lab and Clairol (to name only a few) who make the products we use from polymethyl methacrylate resins. The intended purpose of the Paint Quality Institute is to inform and educate painters, architects and consumers (presumably, people who drink paint) about the benefits of using top quality latex paints. So, the Paint Quality Institute has a web page and issues an o n l i n e newsletter each month dealing with paint issues. You can receive that newsletter free of charge by subscribing to it at the Paint Quality Institute's web site at www.paintquality.com
In 2009, the Rohm & Haas Company was purchased by Dow Chemical, but is being run as an independant company, and is therefore free to continue funding of the Paint Quality Institute from it's own profits.