Usually use Titebond for these lams and I ALWAYS stay with the glue-up until the squeeze-out becomes like bubblegum consistency...at which point the vast majority of that excess is easily removed with a sharp chisel or paint sc****r. This saves big time on labor and on jointer blades, etc.
"Over-width" the lams for the arch by a minimum of 3/8". 1/2" would be safer. Keep them lined up/flushed up as nicely as possible during glue-up nonetheless. Then...depending upon the size of the arch and the width of your jointer bed....either joint one edge on the machine....or handplane that first edge to dead flat...or use a combo of both methods.
Now is where we come to the more difficult part which is of course....getting the other edge cut to width and parallel. Disclaimer ....I'm not suggesting that you do this, but is how I usually do it ..IF the piece is of a size that is negotiable in this manner -
Clamp/rig a long and tall-ish piece of dead-flat ply or MDF (or whatever) to the fence of the tablesaw so as to act as both a guide and support for the arch as its fed thru the tablesaw. IOW, make a big freakin' fence that is square to the tablesaw surface. I then keep the jointed edge of the arch pushed tightly against this fence as it is fed in "rocking fashion"...thru the blade. By far....the best and safest way (frequently only way) to do this is with an assistant with steady hands to help feed and keep the arch pushed up against the elevated fence. The blade of the saw is elevated ONLY so far as to allow the teeth (and maybe 1/2 of the gullets) protrude thru the wood. Steady feed-rate and steady hands are of the utmost importance as you can imagine. This is no place for someone who is frightened of the manuver or unfamiliar with using tablesaws. One little flinch at the wrong moment and disaster can/will result. I've personally never had a bad outcome doing this...but I'm sure it would be easy enough to achieve. Make no mistake...it is somewhat dangerous. Try a few/numerous practice runs holding the piece against the fence set-up to get a feel for things before you try the real deal.....IF you decide to try it. Again....I'm NOT recommending it...just relating how I do it. Lead and trailing ends are the most dangerous. Middle isn't too difficult to control as a rule.(Yes, I still have all ten....and thanks for asking. ) No beer beforehand. Save that for later.
Router with sled (as already suggested) would be another way....and frankly.........would be much safer.
Don't recall ever trying to feed one (an arch) thru either an abrasive planer or a surfacer.
(PS- When I set this fence up....I make dang sure that the cutting only takes place at the lead edge of the tablesaw blade. IOW, the fence is not dead parallael to the blade. That bit (1/32"+) of clearance at the back edge of the blade is added insurance against potential binding and kick-back. So far, so good.)